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Enhancing the mechanical and biological performance of a metallic biomaterial for orthopedic applications through changes in the surface oxide layer by nanocrystalline surface modification

Bahl, Sumit and Shreyas, P and Trishul, MA and Suwas, Satyam and Chatterjee, Kaushik (2015) Enhancing the mechanical and biological performance of a metallic biomaterial for orthopedic applications through changes in the surface oxide layer by nanocrystalline surface modification. In: NANOSCALE, 7 (17). pp. 7704-7716.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1039/c5nr00574d

Abstract

Nanostructured metals are a promising class of biomaterials for application in orthopedics to improve the mechanical performance and biological response for increasing the life of biomedical implants. Surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) is an efficient way of engineering nanocrystalline surfaces on metal substrates. In this work, 316L stainless steel (SS), a widely used orthopedic biomaterial, was subjected to SMAT to generate a nanocrystalline surface. Surface nanocrystallization modified the nature of the oxide layer present on the surface. It increased the corrosion-fatigue strength in saline by 50%. This increase in strength is attributed to a thicker oxide layer, residual compressive stresses, high strength of the surface layer, and lower propensity for intergranular corrosion in the nanocrystalline layer. Nanocrystallization also enhanced osteoblast attachment and proliferation. Intriguingly, wettability and surface roughness, the key parameters widely acknowledged for controlling the cellular response remained unchanged after nanocrystallization. The observed cellular behavior is explained in terms of the changes in electronic properties of the semiconducting passive oxide film present on the surface of 316L SS. Nanocrystallization increased the charge carrier density of the n-type oxide film likely preventing denaturation of the adsorbed cell-adhesive proteins such as fibronectin. In addition, a net positive charge developed on the otherwise neutral oxide layer, which is known to facilitate cellular adhesion. The role of changes in the electronic properties of the oxide films on metal substrates is thus highlighted in this work. This study demonstrates the advantages of nanocrystalline surface modification by SMAT for processing metallic biomaterials used in orthopedic implants.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copy right for this article belongs to the ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, THOMAS GRAHAM HOUSE, SCIENCE PARK, MILTON RD, CAMBRIDGE CB4 0WF, CAMBS, ENGLAND
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Materials Engineering (formerly Metallurgy)
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 15 Jun 2015 09:29
Last Modified: 15 Jun 2015 09:29
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/51668

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