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Acoustic response of vortex breakdown modes in a coaxial isothermal unconfined swirling jet

Santhosh, R and Basu, Saptarshi (2015) Acoustic response of vortex breakdown modes in a coaxial isothermal unconfined swirling jet. In: PHYSICS OF FLUIDS, 27 (3).

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4913703

Abstract

The present experimental work is concerned with the study of amplitude dependent acoustic response of an isothermal coaxial swirling jet. The excitation amplitude is increased in five distinct steps at the burner's Helmholtz resonator mode (i.e., 100 Hz). Two flow states are compared, namely, sub-critical and super-critical vortex breakdown (VB) that occur before and after the critical conical sheet breakdown, respectively. The geometric swirl number is varied in the range 2.14-4.03. Under the influence of external pulsing, global response characteristics are studied based on the topological changes observed in time-averaged 2D flow field. These are obtained from high resolution 2D PIV (particle image velocimetry) in the longitudinal-mid plane. PIV results also illustrate the changes in the normalized vortex core coordinates (r(vcc)/(r(vcc))(0) (Hz), y(vcc)/(y(vcc))(0) (Hz)) of internal recirculation zone (IRZ). A strong forced response is observed at 100 Hz (excitation frequency) in the convectively unstable region which get amplified based on the magnitude of external forcing. The radial extent of this forced response region at a given excitation amplitude is represented by the acoustic response region (b). The topological placement of the responsive convectively unstable region is a function of both the intensity of imparted swirl (characterized by swirl number) and forcing amplitude. It is observed that for sub-critical VB mode, an increase in the excitation amplitude till a critical value shifts the vortex core centre (particularly, the vortex core moves downstream and radially outwards) leading to drastic fanning-out/widening of the IRZ. This is accompanied by similar to 30% reduction in the recirculation velocity of the IRZ. It is also observed that b < R (R: radial distance from central axis to outer shear layer-OSL). At super-critical amplitudes, the sub-critical IRZ topology transits back (the vortex core retracts upstream and radially inwards) and finally undergoes a transverse shrinkage ((r(vcc))/(r(vcc))(0 Hz) decreases by similar to 20%) when b >= R. In contrast, the vortex core of super-critical breakdown mode consistently spreads radially outwards and is displaced further downstream. Finally, the IRZ fans-out at the threshold excitation amplitude. However, the acoustic response region b is still less than R. This is explained based on the characteristic geometric swirl number (S-G) of the flow regimes. The super-critical flow mode with higher S-G (hence, higher radial pressure drop due to rotational effect which scales as Delta P similar to rho u theta(2) and acts inwards towards the center line) compared to sub-critical state imposes a greater resistance to the radial outward spread of b. As a result, the acoustic energy supplied to the super-critical flow mode increases the degree of acoustic response at the pulsing frequency and energizes its harmonics (evident from power spectra). As a disturbance amplifier, the stronger convective instability mode within the flow structure of super-critical VB causes the topology to widen/fan-out severely at threshold excitation amplitude. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copy right for this article belongs to the AMER INST PHYSICS, 1305 WALT WHITMAN RD, STE 300, MELVILLE, NY 11747-4501 USA
Keywords: DOUBLE-CONCENTRIC JETS; FLOW
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Mechanical Engineering
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 13 May 2015 07:25
Last Modified: 13 May 2015 07:25
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/51532

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