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Metastable monoclinic and orthorhombic phases and electric field induced irreversible phase transformation at room temperature in the lead-free classical ferroelectric BaTiO3

Kalyani, Ajay Kumar and Khatua, Dipak Kumar and Loukya, B and Datta, Ranjan and Fitch, Andy N and Senyshyn, Anatoliy and Ranjan, Rajeev (2015) Metastable monoclinic and orthorhombic phases and electric field induced irreversible phase transformation at room temperature in the lead-free classical ferroelectric BaTiO3. In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B, 91 (10).

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.91.104104

Abstract

For decades it has been a well-known fact that among the few ferroelectric compounds in the perovskite family, namely, BaTiO3, KNbO3, PbTiO3, and Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3, the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3 are considerably higher than the others in polycrystalline form at room temperature. Further, similar to ferroelectric alloys exhibiting morphotropic phase boundary, single crystals of BaTiO3 exhibit anomalously large piezoelectric response when poled away from the direction of spontaneous polarization at room temperature. These anomalous features in BaTiO3 remained unexplained so far from the structural standpoint. In this work, we have used high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction, atomic resolution aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, in conjunction with a powder poling technique, to reveal that at 300 K (i) the equilibrium state of BaTiO3 is characterized by coexistence of metastable monoclinic Pm and orthorhombic (Amm2) phases along with the tetragonal phase, and (ii) strong electric field switches the polarization direction from the 001] direction towards the 101] direction. These results suggest that BaTiO3 at room temperature is within an instability regime, and that this instability is the fundamental factor responsible for the anomalous dielectric and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3 as compared to the other homologous ferroelectric perovskite compounds at room temperature. Pure BaTiO3 at room temperature is therefore more akin to lead-based ferroelectric alloys close to the morphotropic phase boundary where polarization rotation and field induced ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transformations play a fundamental role in influencing the dielectric and piezoelectric behavior.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copy right for this article belongs to the AMER PHYSICAL SOC, ONE PHYSICS ELLIPSE, COLLEGE PK, MD 20740-3844 USA
Keywords: GRAINED BARIUM-TITANATE; SINGLE-CRYSTALS; DOMAIN-WALLS; CERAMICS; PERMITTIVITY; FINE; PIEZOELECTRICS; DISPLACEMENT; PEROVSKITE; TRANSITION
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Materials Engineering (formerly Metallurgy)
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 21 Apr 2015 07:45
Last Modified: 21 Apr 2015 07:45
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/51344

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