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Tectono-geomorphic and environmental set-up deduced during deposition of Mio-Pleistocene sediments in NW Himalaya, India

Singh, Seema and Parkash, B and Awasthi, AK (2015) Tectono-geomorphic and environmental set-up deduced during deposition of Mio-Pleistocene sediments in NW Himalaya, India. In: CATENA, 126 . pp. 173-188.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.catena.2014.11.010

Abstract

Detailed pedofacies characterization along-with lithofacies investigations of the Mio-Pleistocene Siwalik sediments exposed in the Ramnagar sub-basin have been studied so as to elucidate variability in time and space of fluvial processes and the role of intra- and extra-basinal controls on fluvial sedimentation during the evolution of the Himalayan foreland basin (HFB). Dominance of multiple, moderately to strongly developed palaeosol assemblages during deposition of Lower Siwalik (similar to 12-10.8 Ma) sediments suggest that the HFB was marked by Upland set-up of Thomas et al. (2002). Activity of intra-basinal faults on the uplands and deposition of terminal fans at different times caused the development of multiple soils. Further, detailed pedofacies along-with lithofacies studies indicate prevalence of stable tectonic conditions and development of meandering streams with broad floodplains. However, the Middle Siwalik (similar to 10.8-4.92 Ma) sub-group is marked by multistoried sandstones and minor mudstone and mainly weakly developed palaeosols, indicating deposition by large braided rivers in the form of megafans in a Lowland set-up of Thomas et al. (2002). Significant change in nature and size of rivers from the Lower to Middle Siwalik at similar to 10 Ma is found almost throughout of the basin from Kohat Plateau (Pakistan) to Nepal because the Himalayan orogeny witnessed its greatest tectonic upheaval at this time leading to attainment of great heights by the Himalaya, intensification of the monsoon, development of large rivers systems and a high rate of sedimentation, hereby a major change from the Upland set-up to the Lowland set-up over major parts of the HFB. An interesting geomorphic environmental set-up prevailed in the Ramnagar sub-basin during deposition of the studied Upper Siwalik (similar to 4.92 to <1.68 Ma) sediments as observed from the degree of pedogenesis and the type of palaeosols. In general, the Upper Siwalik sub-group in the Ramnagar sub-basin is subdivided from bottom to top into the Purmandal sandstone (4.92-4.49 Ma), Nagrota (4.49-1.68 Ma) and Boulder Conglomerate (<1.68 Ma) formations on the basis of sedimentological characters and change in dominant lithology. Presence of mudstone, a few thin gravel beds and dominant sandstone lithology with weakly to moderately developed palaeosols in the Purmandal sandstone Fm. indicates deposition by shallow braided fluvial streams. The deposition of mudstone dominant Nagrota Fm. with moderately to some well developed palaeosols and a zone of gleyed palaeosols with laminated mudstones and thin sandstones took place in an environment marked by numerous small lakes, water-logged regions and small streams in an environment just south of the Piedmont zone, perhaps similar to what is happening presently in the Upland region/the Upper Gangetic plain. This area is locally called the `Trai region' (Pascoe, 1964). Deposition of Boulder Conglomerate Fm. took place by gravelly braided river system close to the Himalayan Ranges. Activity along the Main Boundary Fault led to progradation of these environments distal-ward and led to development of on the whole a coarsening upward sequence. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copy right for this article belongs to the ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, PO BOX 211, 1000 AE AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Centre for Earth Sciences
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 23 Mar 2015 09:55
Last Modified: 23 Mar 2015 09:55
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/51078

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