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Oxygen-participated electrochemistry of new lithium-rich layered oxides Li3MRuO5 M = Mn, Fe)

Laha, S and Natarajan, S and Gopalakrishnan, J and Moran, E and Saez-Puche, R and Alario-Franco, MA and Dos Santos-Garcia, AJ and Perez-Flores, JC and Kuhn, A and Garcia-Alvarado, F (2015) Oxygen-participated electrochemistry of new lithium-rich layered oxides Li3MRuO5 M = Mn, Fe). In: PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, 17 (5). pp. 3749-3760.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1039/c4cp05052e

Abstract

We describe the synthesis, crystal structure and lithium deinsertion-insertion electrochemistry of two new lithium-rich layered oxides, Li3MRuO5 (M = Mn, Fe), related to rock salt based Li2MnO3 and LiCoO2. The Li3MnRuO5 oxide adopts a structure related to Li2MnO3 (C2/m) where Li and (Li0.2Mn0.4Ru0.4) layers alternate along the c-axis, while the Li3FeRuO5 oxide adopts a near-perfect LiCoO2 (R (3) over barm) structure where Li and (Li0.2Fe0.4Ru0.4) layers are stacked alternately. Magnetic measurements indicate for Li3MnRuO5 the presence of Mn3+ and low spin configuration for Ru4+ where the itinerant electrons occupy a pi*-band. The onset of a net maximum in the chi vs. T plot at 9.5 K and the negative value of the Weiss constant (theta) of -31.4 K indicate the presence of antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions according to different pathways. Lithium electrochemistry shows a similar behaviour for both oxides and related to the typical behaviour of Li-rich layered oxides where participation of oxide ions in the electrochemical processes is usually found. A long first charge process with capacities of 240 mA h g(-1) (2.3 Li per f.u.) and 144 mA h g(-1) (1.38 Li per f.u.) is observed for Li3MnRuO5 and Li3FeRuO5, respectively. An initial sloping region (OCV to ca. 4.1 V) is followed by a long plateau (ca. 4.3 V). Further discharge-charge cycling points to partial reversibility (ca. 160 mA h g(-1) and 45 mA h g(-1) for Mn and Fe, respectively). Nevertheless, just after a few cycles, cell failure is observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterisation of both pristine and electrochemically oxidized Li3MRuO5 reveals that in the Li3MnRuO5 oxide, Mn3+ and Ru4+ are partially oxidized to Mn4+ and Ru5+ in the sloping region at low voltage, while in the long plateau, O2- is also oxidized. Oxygen release likely occurs which may be the cause for failure of cells upon cycling. Interestingly, some other Li-rich layered oxides have been reported to cycle acceptably even with the participation of the O2- ligand in the reversible redox processes. In the Li3FeRuO5 oxide, the oxidation process appears to affect only Ru (4+ to 5+ in the sloping region) and O2- (plateau) while Fe seems to retain its 3+ state.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copy right for this article belongs to the ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, THOMAS GRAHAM HOUSE, SCIENCE PARK, MILTON RD, CAMBRIDGE CB4 0WF, CAMBS, ENGLAND
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Solid State & Structural Chemistry Unit
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 04 Mar 2015 12:14
Last Modified: 04 Mar 2015 12:14
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/50959

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