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Halogen Bonds in Crystal Engineering: Like Hydrogen Bonds yet Different

Mukherjee, Arijit and Tothadi, Srinu and Desiraju, Gautam R (2014) Halogen Bonds in Crystal Engineering: Like Hydrogen Bonds yet Different. In: ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH, 47 (8). pp. 2514-2524.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1021/ar5001555

Abstract

CONSPECTUS: The halogen bond is an attractive interaction in which an electrophilic halogen atom approaches a negatively polarized species. Short halogen atom contacts in crystals have been known for around 50 years. Such contacts are found in two varieties: type I, which is symmetrical, and type II, which is bent. Both are influenced by geometric and chemical considerations. Our research group has been using halogen atom interactions as design elements in crystal engineering, for nearly 30 years. These interactions include halogen center dot center dot center dot halogen interactions (X center dot center dot center dot X) and halogen center dot center dot center dot heteroatom interactions (X center dot center dot center dot B). Many X center dot center dot center dot X and almost all X center dot center dot center dot B contacts can be classified as halogen bonds. In this Account, we illustrate examples of crystal engineering where one can build up from previous knowledge with a focus that is provided by the modern definition of the halogen bond. We also comment on the similarities and differences between halogen bonds and hydrogen bonds. These interactions are similar because the protagonist atoms halogen and hydrogen are both electrophilic in nature. The interactions are distinctive because the size of a halogen atom is of consequence when compared with the atomic sizes of, for example, C, N, and O, unlike that of a hydrogen atom. Conclusions may be drawn pertaining to the nature of X center dot center dot center dot X interactions from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). There is a clear geometric and chemical distinction between type I and type II, with only type II being halogen bonds. Cl/Br isostructurality is explained based on a geometric model. In parallel, experimental studies on 3,4-dichlorophenol and its congeners shed light on the nature of halogen center dot center dot center dot halogen interactions and reveal the chemical difference between Cl and Br. Variable temperature studies also show differences between type I and type II contacts. In terms of crystal design, halogen bonds offer a unique opportunity in the strength, atom size and interaction gradation; this may be used in the design of ternary cocrystals. Structural modularity in which an entire crystal structure is defined as a combination of modules is rationalized on the basis of the intermediate strength of a halogen bond. The specific directionality of the halogen bond makes it a good tool to achieve orthogonality in molecular crystals. Mechanical properties can be tuned systematically by varying these orthogonally oriented halogen center dot center dot center dot halogen interactions. In a further development, halogen bonds are shown to play a systematic role in organization of LSAMs (long range synthon aufbau module), which are bigger structural units containing multiple synthons. With a formal definition in place, this may be the right time to look at differences between halogen bonds and hydrogen bonds and exploit them in more subtle ways in crystal engineering.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copy right for this article belongs to the AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 1155 16TH ST, NW, WASHINGTON, DC 20036 USA
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Solid State & Structural Chemistry Unit
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 24 Sep 2014 05:51
Last Modified: 24 Sep 2014 05:51
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/49938

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