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Infection of Human Endothelial Cells by Japanese Encephalitis Virus: Increased Expression and Release of Soluble HLA-E

Shwetank, Shwetank and Date, Onkar S and Kim, Kwang S and Manjunath, Ramanathapuram (2013) Infection of Human Endothelial Cells by Japanese Encephalitis Virus: Increased Expression and Release of Soluble HLA-E. In: PLOS ONE, 8 (11).

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079197

Abstract

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a single stranded RNA virus that infects the central nervous system leading to acute encephalitis in children. Alterations in brain endothelial cells have been shown to precede the entry of this flavivirus into the brain, but infection of endothelial cells by JEV and their consequences are still unclear. Productive JEV infection was established in human endothelial cells leading to IFN-beta and TNF-alpha production. The MHC genes for HLA-A, -B, -C and HLA-E antigens were upregulated in human brain microvascular endothelial cells, the endothelial-like cell line, ECV 304 and human foreskin fibroblasts upon JEV infection. We also report the release/shedding of soluble HLA-E (sHLA-E) from JEV infected human endothelial cells for the first time. This shedding of sHLA-E was blocked by an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). In addition, MMP-9, a known mediator of HLA solubilisation was upregulated by JEV. In contrast, human fibroblasts showed only upregulation of cell-surface HLA-E. Addition of UV inactivated JEV-infected cell culture supernatants stimulated shedding of sHLA-E from uninfected ECV cells indicating a role for soluble factors/cytokines in the shedding process. Antibody mediated neutralization of TNF-alpha as well as IFNAR receptor together not only resulted in inhibition of sHLA-E shedding from uninfected cells, it also inhibited HLA-E and MMP-9 gene expression in JEV-infected cells. Shedding of sHLA-E was also observed with purified TNF-alpha and IFN-beta as well as the dsRNA analog, poly (I:C). Both IFN-beta and TNF-alpha further potentiated the shedding when added together. The role of soluble MHC antigens in JEV infection is hitherto unknown and therefore needs further investigation.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: copyright for this article belongs to the authors
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Biochemistry
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 10 Jan 2014 06:50
Last Modified: 10 Jan 2014 06:51
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/48182

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