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Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt

Sanphui, Palash and Tothadi, Srinu and Ganguly, Somnath and Desiraju, Gautam R (2013) Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt. In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, 10 (12). pp. 4687-4697.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mp400516b

Abstract

Sildenafil is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the drug, the citrate salt, with improved solubility and pharmacokinetics, has been marketed. However, the citrate salt requires an hour to reach its peak plasma concentration. Thus, to improve solubility and bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the acid to form a heterosynthon. Salts are formed with oxalic and fumaric acid; salt monoanions are formed with succinic and glutaric acid. Sildenafil forms cocrystals with longer chain dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, pimelic, suberic, and sebacic acids. Auxiliary stabilization via C-H center dot center dot center dot O interactions is also present in these cocrystals and salts. Solubility experiments of sildenafil cocrystal/salts were carried out in 0.1N HCl aqueous medium and compared with the solubility of the citrate salt. The glutarate salt and pimelic acid cocrystal dissolve faster than the citrate salt in a two hour dissolution experiment. The glutarate salt exhibits improved solubility (3.2-fold) compared to the citrate salt in water. Solubilities of the binary salts follow an inverse correlation with their melting points, while the solubilities of the cocrystals follow solubilities of the coformer. Pharmacokinetic studies on rats showed that the glutarate salt exhibits doubled plasma AUC values in a single dose within an hour compared to the citrate salt. The high solubility of glutaric acid, in part originating from the strained conformation of the molecule and its high permeability, may be the reason for higher plasma levels of the drug.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to American Chemical Society.
Keywords: Bioavailability; Dissolution; Crystal Engineering X-Ray Crystallography; Hydrogen Bond
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Solid State & Structural Chemistry Unit
Depositing User: Francis Jayakanth
Date Deposited: 06 Jan 2014 08:56
Last Modified: 06 Jan 2014 08:56
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/48106

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