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Estimation of Probabilistic Bounds on Phase CPI and Relevance in WCET Analysis

Ravindar, Archana and Srikant, YN (2012) Estimation of Probabilistic Bounds on Phase CPI and Relevance in WCET Analysis. In: 10th ACM International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT), 2012, Tampere, FINLAND, pp. 165-174.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2380356.2380388


Estimating program worst case execution time(WCET) accurately and efficiently is a challenging task. Several programs exhibit phase behavior wherein cycles per instruction (CPI) varies in phases during execution. Recent work has suggested the use of phases in such programs to estimate WCET with minimal instrumentation. However the suggested model uses a function of mean CPI that has no probabilistic guarantees. We propose to use Chebyshev's inequality that can be applied to any arbitrary distribution of CPI samples, to probabilistically bound CPI of a phase. Applying Chebyshev's inequality to phases that exhibit high CPI variation leads to pessimistic upper bounds. We propose a mechanism that refines such phases into sub-phases based on program counter(PC) signatures collected using profiling and also allows the user to control variance of CPI within a sub-phase. We describe a WCET analyzer built on these lines and evaluate it with standard WCET and embedded benchmark suites on two different architectures for three chosen probabilities, p={0.9, 0.95 and 0.99}. For p= 0.99, refinement based on PC signatures alone, reduces average pessimism of WCET estimate by 36%(77%) on Arch1 (Arch2). Compared to Chronos, an open source static WCET analyzer, the average improvement in estimates obtained by refinement is 5%(125%) on Arch1 (Arch2). On limiting variance of CPI within a sub-phase to {50%, 10%, 5% and 1%} of its original value, average accuracy of WCET estimate improves further to {9%, 11%, 12% and 13%} respectively, on Arch1. On Arch2, average accuracy of WCET improves to 159% when CPI variance is limited to 50% of its original value and improvement is marginal beyond that point.

Item Type: Conference Proceedings
Additional Information: 10th ACM International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT), Tampere, FINLAND, OCT 07-12, 2012
Keywords: phase behavior; CPI; WCET analysis; profiling; soft real-time systems; probabilistic bounds; Chebyshev inequality; confidence intervals
Department/Centre: Division of Electrical Sciences > Computer Science & Automation
Date Deposited: 21 Oct 2013 05:29
Last Modified: 21 Oct 2013 05:29
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/47597

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