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Internal defect and process parameter analysis during friction stir welding of Al 6061 sheets

Ramulu, Janaki P and Narayanan, Ganesh R and Kailas, Satish V and Reddy, Jayachandra (2013) Internal defect and process parameter analysis during friction stir welding of Al 6061 sheets. In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY, 65 (9-12). pp. 1515-1528.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00170-012-4276-z


Welding parameters like welding speed, rotation speed, plunge depth, shoulder diameter etc., influence the weld zone properties, microstructure of friction stir welds, and forming behavior of welded sheets in a synergistic fashion. The main aims of the present work are to (1) analyze the effect of welding speed, rotation speed, plunge depth, and shoulder diameter on the formation of internal defects during friction stir welding (FSW), (2) study the effect on axial force and torque during welding, (c) optimize the welding parameters for producing internal defect-free welds, and (d) propose and validate a simple criterion to identify defect-free weld formation. The base material used for FSW throughout the work is Al 6061T6 having a thickness value of 2.1 mm. Only butt welding of sheets is aimed in the present work. It is observed from the present analysis that higher welding speed, higher rotation speed, and higher plunge depth are preferred for producing a weld without internal defects. All the shoulder diameters used for FSW in the present work produced defect-free welds. The axial force and torque are not constant and a large variation is seen with respect to FSW parameters that produced defective welds. In the case of defect-free weld formation, the axial force and torque are relatively constant. A simple criterion, (a,tau/a,p)(defective) > (a,tau/a,p)(defect free) and (a,F/a,p)(defective) > (a,F/a,p)(defect free), is proposed with this observation for identifying the onset of defect-free weld formation. Here F is axial force, tau is torque, and p is welding speed or tool rotation speed or plunge depth. The same criterion is validated with respect to Al 5xxx base material. Even in this case, the axial force and torque remained constant while producing defect-free welds.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright for this article belongs to the SPRINGER LONDON LTD, ENGLAND.
Keywords: Friction stir welding; Defects; Welding speed; Rotational speed; Plunge depth; Shoulder diameter
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Mechanical Engineering
Depositing User: Francis Jayakanth
Date Deposited: 23 Apr 2013 06:24
Last Modified: 23 Apr 2013 06:24
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/46429

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