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Relative roles of instruction count and cycles per instruction in WCET estimation

Ravindar, Archana and Srikant, YN (2011) Relative roles of instruction count and cycles per instruction in WCET estimation. In: ICPE '11 Proceedings of the second joint WOSP/SIPEW International conference on Performance Engineering, 2011, New York, NY, USA.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1958746.1958758


Most of the existing WCET estimation methods directly estimate execution time, ET, in cycles. We propose to study ET as a product of two factors, ET = IC * CPI, where IC is instruction count and CPI is cycles per instruction. Considering directly the estimation of ET may lead to a highly pessimistic estimate since implicitly these methods may be using worst case IC and worst case CPI. We hypothesize that there exists a functional relationship between CPI and IC such that CPI=f(IC). This is ascertained by computing the covariance matrix and studying the scatter plots of CPI versus IC. IC and CPI values are obtained by running benchmarks with a large number of inputs using the cycle accurate architectural simulator, Simplescalar on two different architectures. It is shown that the benchmarks can be grouped into different classes based on the CPI versus IC relationship. For some benchmarks like FFT, FIR etc., both IC and CPI are almost a constant irrespective of the input. There are other benchmarks that exhibit a direct or an inverse relationship between CPI and IC. In such a case, one can predict CPI for a given IC as CPI=f(IC). We derive the theoretical worst case IC for a program, denoted as SWIC, using integer linear programming(ILP) and estimate WCET as SWIC*f(SWIC). However, if CPI decreases sharply with IC then measured maximum cycles is observed to be a better estimate. For certain other benchmarks, it is observed that the CPI versus IC relationship is either random or CPI remains constant with varying IC. In such cases, WCET is estimated as the product of SWIC and measured maximum CPI. It is observed that use of the proposed method results in tighter WCET estimates than Chronos, a static WCET analyzer, for most benchmarks for the two architectures considered in this paper.

Item Type: Conference Paper
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to ACM Press.
Keywords: CPI; WCET Analysis; Benchmarking; Covariance Matrix; Scatter Plot; Soft Real-Time Systems
Department/Centre: Division of Electrical Sciences > Computer Science & Automation
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 06 Mar 2013 11:12
Last Modified: 06 Mar 2013 11:12
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/45973

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