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Activation of TGF-beta Pathway by Areca Nut Constituents: A Possible Cause of Oral Submucous Fibrosis

Khan, Imran and Kumar, Neeraj and Pant, Ila and Narra, Sivakrishna and Kondaiah, Paturu (2012) Activation of TGF-beta Pathway by Areca Nut Constituents: A Possible Cause of Oral Submucous Fibrosis. In: PLOS ONE, 7 (12).

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051806

Abstract

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of excess collagen, and areca nut chewing has been proposed as an important etiological factor for disease manifestation. Activation of transforming growth factor-beta signaling has been postulated as the main causative event for increased collagen production in OSF. Oral epithelium plays important roles in OSF, and arecoline has been shown to induce TGF-beta in epithelial cells. In an attempt to understand the role of areca nut constituents in the manifestation of OSF, we studied the global gene expression profile in epithelial cells (HaCaT) following treatment with areca nut water extract or TGF-beta. Interestingly, 64% of the differentially regulated genes by areca nut water extract matches with the TGF-beta induced gene expression profile. Out of these, expression of 57% of genes was compromised in the presence of ALK5 (T beta RI) inhibitor and 7% were independently induced by areca nut, highlighting the importance of TGF-beta in areca nut actions. Areca nut water extract treatment induced p-SMAD2 and TGF-beta downstream targets in HaCaT cells but not in human gingival fibroblast cells (hGF), suggesting epithelial cells could be the source of TGF-beta in promoting OSF. Water extract of areca nut consists of polyphenols and alkaloids. Both polyphenol and alkaloid fractions of areca nut were able to induce TGF-beta signaling and its downstream targets. Also, SMAD-2 was phosphorylated following treatment of HaCaT cells by Catechin, Tannin and alkaloids namely Arecoline, Arecaidine and Guvacine. Moreover, both polyphenols and alkaloids induced TGF-beta 2 and THBS1 (activator of latent TGF-beta) in HaCaT cells suggesting areca nut mediated activation of p-SMAD2 involves up-regulation and activation of TGF-beta. These data suggest a major causative role for TGF-beta that is induced by areca nut in OSF progression.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copy right for this article belongs to PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, USA
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Molecular Reproduction, Development & Genetics
Depositing User: Francis Jayakanth
Date Deposited: 04 Feb 2013 11:39
Last Modified: 04 Feb 2013 11:39
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/45730

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