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Activation of Lattice Oxygen of TiO2 by Pd2+ Ion: Correlation of Low-Temperature CO and Hydrocarbon Oxidation with Structure of Ti1-xPdxO2-x (x=0.01-0.03)

Mukri, Bhaskar Devu and Dutta, Gargi and Waghmare, Umesh V and Hegde, MS (2012) Activation of Lattice Oxygen of TiO2 by Pd2+ Ion: Correlation of Low-Temperature CO and Hydrocarbon Oxidation with Structure of Ti1-xPdxO2-x (x=0.01-0.03). In: CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, 24 (23). pp. 4491-4502.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cm301704u

Abstract

Lattice oxygen of TiO2 is activated by the substitution of Pd ion in its lattice. Ti1-xPdxO2-x (x = 0.01-0.03) have been synthesized by solution combustion method crystallizing in anatase TiO2 structure. Pd is in +2 oxidation state and Ti is in +4 oxidation state in the catalyst. Pd is more ionic in TiO2 lattice compared to Pd in PdO. Oxygen storage capacity defined by ``amount of oxygen that is used reversibly to oxidize CO'' is as high as 5100 mu mol/g of Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97. Oxygen is extracted by CO to CO2 in absence of feed oxygen even at room temperature which is more than 20 times compared to pure TiO2. Rate of CO oxidation is 2.75 mu mol g(-1) s(-1) at 60 degrees C over Ti0.97Pd0.03O1.97 and C2H2 gets oxidized to CO2 and H2O at room temperature. Catalyst is not poisoned on long time operation of the reactor. Such high catalytic activity is due to activated lattice oxygen created by the substitution of Pd ion as seen from first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations with 96 atom supercells of Ti32O64, Ti31Pd1O63, Ti30Pd2O62, and Ti29Pd3O61. The compounds crystallize in anatase TiO2 structure with Pd2+ ion in nearly square planar geometry and TiO6 octahedra are distorted by the creation of weakly bound oxygens. Structural analysis of Ti31Pd1O63 which is close to 3% Pd ion substituted TiO2 shows that oxygens associated with both Ti and Pd ions in the lattice show bond valence sum of 1.87, a low value characteristic of weak oxygen in the lattice compared to oxygens with valence 2 and above in the same lattice. Exact positions of activated oxygens have been identified in the lattice from DFT calculations.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright for this article belongs to AMER CHEMICAL SOC, WASHINGTON
Keywords: solution combustion method;TiO2;CO and HC oxidation;XPS;DFT
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Solid State & Structural Chemistry Unit
Depositing User: Francis Jayakanth
Date Deposited: 16 Jan 2013 12:42
Last Modified: 16 Jan 2013 12:42
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/45641

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