ePrints@IIScePrints@IISc Home | About | Browse | Latest Additions | Advanced Search | Contact | Help

Ganga-Brahmaputra river discharge from Jason-2 radar altimetry: An update to the long-term satellite-derived estimates of continental freshwater forcing flux into the Bay of Bengal

Papa, Fabrice and Bala, Sujit K and Pandey, Rajesh K and Durand, Fabien and Gopalakrishna, VV and Rahman, Atiqur and Rossow, William B (2012) Ganga-Brahmaputra river discharge from Jason-2 radar altimetry: An update to the long-term satellite-derived estimates of continental freshwater forcing flux into the Bay of Bengal. In: JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-OCEANS, 117 .

[img] PDF
jol_geo_res_117_C11021_2012.pdf - Published Version
Restricted to Registered users only

Download (1MB) | Request a copy
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2012JC008158

Abstract

This paper discusses the use of Jason-2 radar altimeter measurements to estimate the Ganga-Brahmaputra surface freshwater flux into the Bay of Bengal for the period mid-2008 to December 2011. A previous estimate was generated for 1993-2008 using TOPEX-Poseidon, ERS-2 and ENVISAT, and is now extended using Jason-2. To take full advantages of the new availability of in situ rating curves, the processing scheme is adapted and the adjustments of the methodology are discussed here. First, using a large sample of in situ river height measurements, we estimate the standard error of Jason-2-derived water levels over the Ganga and the Brahmaputra to be respectively of 0.28 m and 0.19 m, or less than similar to 4% of the annual peak-to-peak variations of these two rivers. Using the in situ rating curves between water levels and river discharges, we show that Jason-2 accurately infers Ganga and Brahmaputra instantaneous discharges for 2008-2011 with mean errors ranging from similar to 2180 m(3)/s (6.5%) over the Brahmaputra to similar to 1458 m(3)/s (13%) over the Ganga. The combined Ganga-Brahmaputra monthly discharges meet the requirements of acceptable accuracy (15-20%) with a mean error of similar to 16% for 2009-2011 and similar to 17% for 1993-2011. The Ganga-Brahmaputra monthly discharge at the river mouths is then presented, showing a marked interannual variability with a standard deviation of similar to 12500 m(3)/s, much larger than the data set uncertainty. Finally, using in situ sea surface salinity observations, we illustrate the possible impact of extreme continental freshwater discharge event on the northern Bay of Bengal as observed in 2008.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright for this article belongs to AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, WASHINGTON,
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Civil Engineering
Depositing User: Francis Jayakanth
Date Deposited: 19 Dec 2012 11:11
Last Modified: 19 Dec 2012 11:11
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/45541

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item