# Boxicity and Poset Dimension

Adiga, Abhijin and Bhowmick, Diptendu and Chandran, Sunil L (2011) Boxicity and Poset Dimension. In: SIAM Journal on Discrete Mathematics, 25 (4). pp. 1687-1698.

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## Abstract

Let G be a simple, undirected, finite graph with vertex set V (G) and edge set E(G). A k-dimensional box is a Cartesian product of closed intervals [a(1), b(1)] x [a(2), b(2)] x ... x [a(k), b(k)]. The boxicity of G, box(G), is the minimum integer k such that G can be represented as the intersection graph of k-dimensional boxes; i.e., each vertex is mapped to a k-dimensional box and two vertices are adjacent in G if and only if their corresponding boxes intersect. Let P = (S, P) be a poset, where S is the ground set and P is a reflexive, antisymmetric and transitive binary relation on S. The dimension of P, dim(P), is the minimum integer t such that P can be expressed as the intersection of t total orders. Let G(P) be the underlying comparability graph of P; i.e., S is the vertex set and two vertices are adjacent if and only if they are comparable in P. It is a well-known fact that posets with the same underlying comparability graph have the same dimension. The first result of this paper links the dimension of a poset to the boxicity of its underlying comparability graph. In particular, we show that for any poset P, box(G(P))/(chi(G(P)) - 1) <= dim(P) <= 2box(G(P)), where chi(G(P)) is the chromatic number of G(P) and chi(G(P)) not equal 1. It immediately follows that if P is a height-2 poset, then box(G(P)) <= dim(P) <= 2box(G(P)) since the underlying comparability graph of a height-2 poset is a bipartite graph. The second result of the paper relates the boxicity of a graph G with a natural partial order associated with the extended double cover of G, denoted as G(c): Note that G(c) is a bipartite graph with partite sets A and B which are copies of V (G) such that, corresponding to every u is an element of V (G), there are two vertices u(A) is an element of A and u(B) is an element of B and {u(A), v(B)} is an edge in G(c) if and only if either u = v or u is adjacent to v in G. Let P(c) be the natural height-2 poset associated with G(c) by making A the set of minimal elements and B the set of maximal elements. We show that box(G)/2 <= dim(P(c)) <= 2box(G) + 4. These results have some immediate and significant consequences. The upper bound dim(P) <= 2box(G(P)) allows us to derive hitherto unknown upper bounds for poset dimension such as dim(P) = 2 tree width (G(P)) + 4, since boxicity of any graph is known to be at most its tree width + 2. In the other direction, using the already known bounds for partial order dimension we get the following: (1) The boxicity of any graph with maximum degree Delta is O(Delta log(2) Delta), which is an improvement over the best-known upper bound of Delta(2) + 2. (2) There exist graphs with boxicity Omega(Delta log Delta). This disproves a conjecture that the boxicity of a graph is O(Delta). (3) There exists no polynomial-time algorithm to approximate the boxicity of a bipartite graph on n vertices with a factor of O(n(0.5-is an element of)) for any is an element of > 0 unless NP = ZPP.

Item Type: Journal Article SIAM Journal on Discrete Mathematics Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Copyright of this article belongs to Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. boxicity;partial order;poset dimension;comparability graph; extended double cover Division of Electrical Sciences > Computer Science & Automation 02 Apr 2012 11:56 28 Feb 2019 08:38 http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/44200