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The two-step positive temperature coefficient in resistance characteristics of n-(Ba,Pb)TiO3 ceramics created through inclusion of grain boundary modifier additives

Kutty, TRN and Hari, NS (1997) The two-step positive temperature coefficient in resistance characteristics of n-(Ba,Pb)TiO3 ceramics created through inclusion of grain boundary modifier additives. In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 30 (24). pp. 3360-3365.

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Official URL: http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/30/24/015/

Abstract

Donor-doped n-(Ba,Pb)TiO3 polycrystalline ceramics exhibit distinctly two-step positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR) characteristics when formulated with suitable combinations of B2O3 and Al2O3 as grain boundary modifiers by heterogeneous addition. B2O3 or Al2O3 when added singularly resulted in either steep or broad PTCR jumps respectively across the phase transition. The two-step PTCR is attributed to the activation of the acceptor states, created through B2O3 and Al2O3, for various temperature regimes above the Curie point (T-c). The changing pattern of trap states is evident from the presence of Ti4+-O--Al3+ type hole centres in the grain boundary layer regions, identified in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra. That charge redistribution occurs among the inter-band gap defect states on crossing the Curie temperature is substantiated by the temperature coefficient in the EPR results. Capacitance-voltage results clearly show that there is an increase in the density of trap states with the addition of B2O3 and Al2O3. The spread in energy values of these trap states is evident from the large change in barrier height (phi similar or equal to 0.25-0.6 eV) between 500 and 650 K.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to Institute of Physics.
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Materials Research Centre
Depositing User: Ms V Mangala
Date Deposited: 22 Jun 2011 05:52
Last Modified: 22 Jun 2011 05:52
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/38548

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