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Effect of Constant and Cyclic Current Stressing on the Evolution of Intermetallic Compound Layers

Laurila, T and Karppinen, J and Vuorinen, V and Paul, A and Paulasto-Krockel, M (2011) Effect of Constant and Cyclic Current Stressing on the Evolution of Intermetallic Compound Layers. In: Journal of Electronic Materials, 40 (7). pp. 1517-1526.

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Abstract

In this paper the effects of constant and cyclic power loads on the evolution of interfacial reaction layers in lead-free solder interconnections are presented. Firstly, the differences in the growth behavior of intermetallic compound (IMC) layers at the cathode and anode sides of the interconnections are rationalized. This is done by considering the changes in the intrinsic fluxes of elements owing to electromigration as well as taking into account the fact that the growth of Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 are coupled via interfacial reactions. In this way, better understanding of the effect of electron flux on the growth of each individual layer in the Cu-Sn system can be achieved. Secondly, it is shown that there is a distinct difference between steady-state current stressing (constant current, constant temperature) and power cycling with alternating on- and off-cycle periods (accompanied by a change of temperature). The reasons behind the observed differences are subsequently discussed. Finally, special care is taken to ensure that the current densities are chosen in such a way that there is no risk for even partial melting of the solder interconnections.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to Springer.
Keywords: Electromigration;solid-state diffusion;intermetallic reactions;lead-free solder
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Materials Engineering (formerly Metallurgy)
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 15 Jun 2011 04:56
Last Modified: 15 Jun 2011 04:56
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/38244

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