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# Distributed nonlinear optimization algorithms for general network problems

Subramanian, DK (1988) Distributed nonlinear optimization algorithms for general network problems. In: Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences, 113 . 165 -176.

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## Abstract

There are a number of large networks which occur in many problems dealing with the flow of power, communication signals, water, gas, transportable goods, etc. Both design and planning of these networks involve optimization problems. The first part of this paper introduces the common characteristics of a nonlinear network (the network may be linear, the objective function may be non linear, or both may be nonlinear). The second part develops a mathematical model trying to put together some important constraints based on the abstraction for a general network. The third part deals with solution procedures; it converts the network to a matrix based system of equations, gives the characteristics of the matrix and suggests two solution procedures, one of them being a new one. The fourth part handles spatially distributed networks and evolves a number of decomposition techniques so that we can solve the problem with the help of a distributed computer system. Algorithms for parallel processors and spatially distributed systems have been described.There are a number of common features that pertain to networks. A network consists of a set of nodes and arcs. In addition at every node, there is a possibility of an input (like power, water, message, goods etc) or an output or none. Normally, the network equations describe the flows amoungst nodes through the arcs. These network equations couple variables associated with nodes. Invariably, variables pertaining to arcs are constants; the result required will be flows through the arcs. To solve the normal base problem, we are given input flows at nodes, output flows at nodes and certain physical constraints on other variables at nodes and we should find out the flows through the network (variables at nodes will be referred to as across variables).The optimization problem involves in selecting inputs at nodes so as to optimise an objective function; the objective may be a cost function based on the inputs to be minimised or a loss function or an efficiency function. The above mathematical model can be solved using Lagrange Multiplier technique since the equalities are strong compared to inequalities. The Lagrange multiplier technique divides the solution procedure into two stages per iteration. Stage one calculates the problem variables % and stage two the multipliers lambda. It is shown that the Jacobian matrix used in stage one (for solving a nonlinear system of necessary conditions) occurs in the stage two also.A second solution procedure has also been imbedded into the first one. This is called total residue approach. It changes the equality constraints so that we can get faster convergence of the iterations.Both solution procedures are found to coverge in 3 to 7 iterations for a sample network.The availability of distributed computer systems — both LAN and WAN — suggest the need for algorithms to solve the optimization problems. Two types of algorithms have been proposed — one based on the physics of the network and the other on the property of the Jacobian matrix. Three algorithms have been deviced, one of them for the local area case. These algorithms are called as regional distributed algorithm, hierarchical regional distributed algorithm (both using the physics properties of the network), and locally distributed algorithm (a multiprocessor based approach with a local area network configuration). The approach used was to define an algorithm that is faster and uses minimum communications. These algorithms are found to converge at the same rate as the non distributed (unitary) case.

Item Type: Journal Article Copyright of this article belongs to Springer. Division of Electrical Sciences > Computer Science & Automation Ms Mary Ranjeetha 09 Sep 2010 06:18 09 Sep 2010 06:18 http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/32095

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