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Expression profiling of sodium butyrate (NaB)-treated cells: identification of regulation of genes related to cytokine signaling and cancer metastasis by NaB

Joseph, Jeena and Mudduluru, Giridhar and Antony, Sini and Vashistha, Surabhi and Ajitkumar, Parthasarathi and Somasundaram, Kumaravel (2004) Expression profiling of sodium butyrate (NaB)-treated cells: identification of regulation of genes related to cytokine signaling and cancer metastasis by NaB. In: Oncogene, 23 (37). pp. 6304-6315.


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Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce growth arrest and apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells. Sodium butyrate (NaB), a short chain fatty acid, is a HDAC inhibitor and is produced in the colonic lumen as a consequence of microbial degradation of dietary fibers. In order to dissect out the mechanism of NaB-induced growth inhibition of cancer cells, we carried out expression profiling of a human lung carcinoma cell line H460) treated with NaB using a cDNA microarray. Of the total 1728 genes analysed, there were 32 genes with a mean expression value of 2.0-fold and higher and 66 genes with a mean expression value 3.0-fold and lower in NaBtreated cells. For a few selected genes, we demonstrate that their expression pattern by semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) analysis is matching with the results obtained by microarray analysis. Closer view at the expression profile of NaB treated cells revealed the downregulation of a total of 16 genes associated with cytokine signaling, in particular, interferon c (IFNc) pathway. In good correlation, NaBpretreated cells failed to induce interferon regulatory factor 1, an INFc target gene, efficiently upon IFNc addition. These results suggest that NaB inhibits proin- flammatory cytokine signaling pathway, thus providing proof of mechanism for its anti-inflammatory activity. We also found that NaB induced three genes, which are known metastatic suppressors, and downregulated 11 genes, which have been shown to promote metastasis. Upregulation of metastatic suppressor Kangai 1 (KAI1) by NaB in a time-dependent manner was confirmed by RT–PCR analysis. The differential regulation of metastasis-associated genes by NaB provides explanation for the antiinvasive properties of NaB. Therefore, our study presents new evidence for pathways regulated by NaB, thus providing evidence for the mechanism behind antiin flammatory and antimetastatic activities of NaB.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Oncogene
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Additional Information: Copyright for this article belongs to Nature Publishing Group.
Keywords: Sodium butyrate;histone deacetyalse inhibitor;chromatin remodeling;microarray;expression profiling;cytokine signaling;metastasis
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Microbiology & Cell Biology
Date Deposited: 20 Nov 2007
Last Modified: 19 Sep 2010 04:16
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/2122

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