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Synthesis, crystal structure, DNA binding and photo-induced DNA cleavage activity of (S-methyl-L-cysteine)copper(II) complexes of heterocyclic bases

Patra, Ashis K and Nethaji, Munirathinam and Chakravarty, Akhil R (2007) Synthesis, crystal structure, DNA binding and photo-induced DNA cleavage activity of (S-methyl-L-cysteine)copper(II) complexes of heterocyclic bases. In: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 101 (2). pp. 233-244.

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Ternary S-methyl-L-cysteine (SMe-L-cys) copper(II) complexes [Cu(SMe-L-cys)(B)$(H_2O)$](X) (1–4), where the heterocyclic base B is 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy, 1), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 2), dipyridoquinoxaline (dpq, 3) and ipyridophenazine (dppz, 4), and X is $ClO^{-}_4$ (1–3) or $NO^{-}_3$ (4), are prepared and their DNA binding and cleavage properties studied. Complexes 2 and 4 are structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. Both the crystal structures show distorted square-pyramidal (4 + 1) $CuN_3O_2$ coordination geometry of the complexes in which the N,O-donor S-methyl-L-cysteine and N,N-donor heterocyclic base bind at the basal plane with a water molecule as the axial ligand. In addition, the dppz structure shows the presence of a 1D-chain formed due to covalent linkage of the carboxylate oxygen atom belonging to another molecule at the elongated axial site. The crystal structures show chemically significant non-covalent interactions like hydrogen bonding involving the axial aqua ligand and p–p interactions between dppz ligands. The complexes display a d–d band in the range of 605–654 nm in aqueous dimethylformamide (DMF) solution (9:1 v/v). The redox active complexes show quasireversible cyclic voltammetric response near 0.1 V in DMF assignable to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple. The complexes show good binding affinity to calf thymus (CT) DNA giving the order: 4 (dppz) > 3 (dpq) > 2 (phen) _ 1 (bpy). The intrinsic binding constants, obtained from UV–visible spectroscopic studies, are 1.3 \times $10^4$ and 2.15 \times $10^4 M^{-1}$ for 3 and 4, respectively. Control DNA cleavage experiments using pUC19 supercoiled (SC) DNA and minor groove binder distamycin suggest major groove binding propensity for the dppz complex, while the phen and dpq complexes bind at the minor groove of DNA. Complexes 2–4 show DNA cleavage activity in dark in the presence of a reducing agent 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) via a mechanistic pathway involving formation of hydroxyl radical as the reactive species. The complexes also show efficient photo-induced DNA cleavage activity on irradiation with a monochromatic UV light of 365 nm in absence of any external reagent. The cleavage efficiency follows the order: 3 > 4 > 2. The complexes exhibit significant DNA cleavage activity on irradiation with visible light of 633 nm. Control experiments show inhibition of cleavage in presence of singlet oxygen quenchers like sodium azide, histidine and enhancement of cleavage in $D_2O$, suggesting formation of singlet oxygen as a reactive species in a type-II process. The photosensitizing effect of the thiomethyl group of the amino acid is evidenced from the observation of significant DNA photocleavage activity of the phen complex 2 as the phen ligand itself is not a photosensitizer.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Publisher: Elsevier Science
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier Science.
Keywords: Copper(II) complex;DNA binding;DNA photocleavage;Phenanthroline bases;S-methyl-L-cysteine;Crystal structure.
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Inorganic & Physical Chemistry
Date Deposited: 29 Jul 2008
Last Modified: 19 Sep 2010 04:48
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/15296

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